- Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.
- Students use a variety of maps to explain the historical migration of people, expansion, and the disintegration of empires.
- Students compare the point of view of two or more authors, including which details they include and emphasize in their accounts.
- Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
- Students distinguish between primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
- Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
- Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.